Τρίτη, 3 Φεβρουαρίου 2015

Cosmetic Surgery-Risks and Expectations



All surgeries, including cosmetic procedures, carry risk. Those with a history of cardiovascular disease, lung disease, diabetes or obesity have a higher risk of developing complications such as pneumonia, stroke, heart attack or blood clots in the legs or lungs. Smoking also increases risks and interferes with healing.
A meeting with the surgeon will include a discussion of these risks and others related to the patient's health history.
Possible complications for any surgical procedure include:
  • Complications related to anesthesia, including pneumonia, blood clots and, rarely, death
  • Infection at the incision site, which may worsen scarring and require additional surgery
  • Fluid build up under the skin
  • Mild bleeding, which may require another surgical procedure, or bleeding significant enough to require a transfusion
  • Obvious scarring or skin breakdown, which occurs when healing skin separates from healthy skin and must be removed surgically
  • Numbness and tingling from nerve damage, which may be permanent

Questions for the patient to consider before pursuing cosmetic surgery:

  • What are my motives for wanting to change how I look?
  • What are the specific attributes of my appearance that I want to change?
  • Do I have realistic expectations about the results of the surgery?
  • What aspects of my life will be affected such as family, work, travel and social obligations?
  • What time in my life will work best so that I have the greatest chance for a successful recovery?
  • Have I talked about my concerns and questions openly with my health care provider?

Questions to ask the cosmetic surgeon:

It is a good idea to bring a notepad to write down answers.
  • What are your qualifications?
  • How long have you been board-certified?
  • How many procedures have you done similar to the one I'm considering?
  • What other health care professionals are involved in my care?
  • What side effects can I expect?
  • What results can I expect?
  • What are the possible complications of the cosmetic surgery I am considering?
  • What kind of help will I need at home following surgery?
  • How long before I see the final results of my surgery?
  • How long before I can go back to work and/or resume exercise?
  • Are there complications unique to my health history?
  • Will I have any scars and if yes, what will they look like?
  • If my procedure requires stitches, when will they be removed?
  • How much does the procedure cost?

Questions to ask about a procedure:

  • What does the procedure do? What does it not do?
  • What are the risks and complications associated with this procedure?
  • How long is the recovery period?
  • Can I expect much discomfort?
  • Will I have scars?
  • Are there other procedures I should consider at the same time?
  • Will I need a physical examination prior to surgery?
  • How long will the results last?
  • How much does it cost?


  • Care is targeted to the individual needs of each patient.
  • Realistic expectations are key — the goal is improvement, not perfection.
  • Everyone is asymmetrical.
  • Each patient has a different result.
  • Patients will have at least two visits with the surgeon and/or another member of the health care team before surgery.
  • It is essential that a patient be in good physical and mental health.
  • Abstaining from all nicotine products and avoiding secondhand smoke for at least six weeks before and after surgery is crucial.
  • Surgical scars are permanent.
  • Bruising and swelling are temporary.
  • Some surgeries require drains.
  • Recovery times vary by person and procedure, but a minimum of 6 to 12 weeks is typical for many cosmetic surgeries.
  • Insurance does not usually cover cosmetic procedures.
  • Patients may need follow-up surgeries to achieve their goals.
  • The wait between surgeries is generally at least four months.

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